Rabu, 01 Juli 2009


In humans, the kidneys are located behind the abdominal cavity, in a space called the retroperitoneum. There are two, one on each side of the spine; they are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3.[2] The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. Above each kidney is an adrenal gland (also called the suprarenal gland). The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right.[citation needed] The upper (cranial) parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia. Each adult kidney weighs between 125 and 170 g in males and between 115 and 155 g in females.[2] The left kidney is typically slightly larger than the right.

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